Moderator: Cheng Tan
Zining Zhang · Bingsheng He · Zhenjie Zhang
In the domain of computer vision, transformer models have shown noteworthy success, prompting extensive research on optimizing their inference, particularly concerning their deployment on edge devices. While quantization has emerged as a viable solution for enabling energy efficiency in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), achieving direct quantization of complex activation and normalization operators in transformer models proves to be a challenging task. Existing methods that rely on 64-bit integers often suffer from data truncation issues when deployed to energy-constrained edge devices, resulting in a significant loss of model accuracy. In this paper, we propose a range-constrained quantization technique for activation and normalization operators in transformers that addresses the dilemma between data range and precision. Our approach is the first 32-bit integer-based edge kernel implementation for vision transformers with post-training integer-only quantization, ensuring both efficiency and accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate a remarkable 5 times kernel speedup when deployed on two different ARM CPUs, with negligible accuracy loss in comparison to full-precision vision transformers. This innovative work is poised to significantly impact the deployment of transformer models on energy-efficient edge devices.
colby banbury · Vijay Janapa Reddi · Alexander Elium · Shawn Hymel · David Tischler · Daniel Situnayake · Carl Ward · Louis Moreau · Jenny Plunkett · Matthew Kelcey · Mathijs Baaijens · Alessandro Grande · Dmitry Maslov · Arthur Beavis · Jan Jongboom · Jessica Quaye
Edge Impulse is a cloud-based machine learning operations (MLOps) platform for developing embedded and edge ML (TinyML) systems that can be deployed to a wide range of hardware targets. Current TinyML workflows are plagued by fragmented software stacks and heterogeneous deployment hardware, making ML model optimizations difficult and unportable. We present Edge Impulse, a practical MLOps platform for developing TinyML systems at scale. Edge Impulse addresses these challenges and streamlines the TinyML design cycle by supporting various software and hardware optimizations to create an extensible and portable software stack for a multitude of embedded systems. As of Oct. 2022, Edge Impulse hosts 118,185 projects from 50,953 developers.
Payman Behnam · Alexey Tumanov · Tushar Krishna · Pranav Gadikar · Yangyu Chen · Jianming Tong · Yue Pan · Abhimanyu Rajeshkumar Bambhaniya · Alind Khare
A growing number of applications depend on Machine Learning (ML) functionality and benefits from both higher quality ML predictions and better timeliness (latency) at the same time. A growing body of research in computer architecture, ML, and systems software literature focuses on reaching better latency/accuracy tradeoffs for ML models. Efforts include compression, quantization, pruning, early-exit models, mixed DNN precision, as well as ML inference accelerator designs that minimize latency and energy, while preserving delivered accuracy. All of them, however, yield improvements for a single static point in the latency/accuracy tradeoff space. We make a case for applications that operate in dynamically changing deployment scenarios, where no single static point is optimal. We draw on a recently proposed weight-shared SuperNet mechanism to enable serving a stream of queries that uses (activates) different SubNets within this weight-shared construct. This creates an opportunity to exploit the inherent temporal locality with our proposed SubGraph Stationary (SGS) optimization. We take a hardware-software co-design approach with a real implementation of SGS in SushiAccel and the implementation of a software scheduler SushiSched controlling which SubNets to serve and what to cache in real-time. Combined, they are vertically integrated into SUSHI—an inference serving stack. For the stream of queries SUSHI yields up to 25% improvement in latency, 0.98% increase in served accuracy. SUSHI can achieve up to 78.7% off-chip energy savings.