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ML Programming Models and Abstractions & Interpretability and Explainability of ML

Exhibit Hall A

Moderator: Justin Gottschlich

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Wed 31 Aug. 13:00 - 13:18 PDT

Understanding GNN Computational Graph: A Coordinated Computation, IO, and Memory Perspective

Hengrui Zhang · Zhongming Yu · Guohao Dai · Guyue Huang · Yufei Ding · Yuan Xie · Yu Wang

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been widely used in various domains, and GNNs with sophisticated computational graph lead to higher latency and larger memory consumption. Optimizing the GNN computational graph suffers from: (1) Redundant neural operator computation. The same data are propagated through the graph structure to perform the same neural operation multiple times in GNNs, leading to redundant computation which accounts for 92.4% of total operators. (2) Inconsistent thread mapping. Efficient thread mapping schemes for vertex-centric and edge-centric operators are different. This inconsistency prohibits operator fusion to reduce memory IO. (3) Excessive intermediate data. For GNN training which is usually performed concurrently with inference, intermediate data must be stored for the backward pass, consuming 91.9% of the total memory requirement.To tackle these challenges, we propose following designs to optimize the GNN computational graph from a novel coordinated computation, IO, and memory perspective: (1) Propagation-postponed operator reorganization. We reorganize operators to perform neural operations before the propagation, thus the redundant computation is eliminated. (2) Unified thread mapping for fusion. We propose a unified thread mapping scheme for both vertex- and edge-centric operators to enable fusion and reduce IO. (3) Intermediate data recomputation. Intermediate data are recomputed during the backward pass to reduce the total memory consumption. Extensive experimental results on three typical GNN models show that, we achieve up to 2.75x end-to-end speedup, 6.89x less memory IO, and 7.73x less memory consumption over state-of-the-art frameworks.

Wed 31 Aug. 13:18 - 13:36 PDT

torch.fx: Practical Program Capture and Transformation for Deep Learning in Python

James Reed · Zachary DeVito · Horace He · Ansley Ussery · Jason Ansel

Modern deep learning frameworks provide imperative, eager execution programming interfaces embedded in Python to provide a productive development experience. However, deep learning practitioners sometimes need to capture and transform program structure for performance optimization, visualization, analysis, and hardware integration. We study the different designs for program capture and transformation used in deep learning. By designing for typical deep learning use cases rather than long tail ones, it is possible to create a simpler framework for program capture and transformation. We apply this principle in torch.fx, a program capture and transformation library for PyTorch written entirely in Python and optimized for high developer productivity by ML practitioners. We present case studies showing how torch.fx enables workflows previously inaccessible in the PyTorch ecosystem.

Wed 31 Aug. 13:36 - 13:54 PDT

FROTE: Feedback Rule-Driven Oversampling for Editing Models

Oznur Alkan · Dennis Wei · Massimiliano Mattetti · Rahul Nair · Elizabeth Daly · Diptikalyan Saha

Machine learning (ML) models may involve decision boundaries that change over time due to updates to rules and regulations, such as in loan approvals or claims management. However, in such scenarios, it may take time for sufficient training data to accumulate in order to retrain the model to reflect the new decision boundaries. While work has been done to reinforce existing decision boundaries, very little has been done to cover these scenarios where decision boundaries of the ML models should change in order to reflect new rules. In this paper, we focus on user-provided feedback rules as a way to expedite the ML models' update process, and we formally introduce the problem of pre-processing training data to edit an ML model in response to feedback rules such that once the model is retrained on the pre-processed data, its decision boundaries align more closely with the rules. To solve this problem, we propose a novel data augmentation method, the Feedback Rule-Based Oversampling Technique (FROTE). Extensive experiments using different ML models and real world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, in particular the benefit of augmentation and the ability to handle many feedback rules.

Wed 31 Aug. 13:54 - 14:12 PDT

TyXe: Pyro-based Bayesian neural nets for Pytorch

Hippolyt Ritter · Theofanis Karaletsos

We introduce TyXe, a Bayesian neural network library built on top of Pytorch and Pyro. Our leading design principle is to cleanly separate architecture, prior, inference and likelihood specification, allowing for a flexible workflow where users can quickly iterate over combinations of these components. In contrast to existing packages TyXe does not implement any layer classes, and instead relies on architectures defined in generic Pytorch code. TyXe then provides modular choices for canonical priors, variational guides, inference techniques, and layer selections for a Bayesian treatment of the specified architecture. Sampling tricks for variance reduction, such as local reparameterization or flipout, are implemented as effect handlers, which can be applied independently of other specifications. We showcase the ease of use of TyXe to explore Bayesian versions of popular models from various libraries: toy regression with a pure Pytorch neural network; large-scale image classification with torchvision ResNets; graph neural networks based on DGL; and Neural Radiance Fields built on top of Pytorch3D. Finally, we provide convenient abstractions for variational continual learning. In all cases the change from a deterministic to a Bayesian neural network comes with minimal modifications to existing code, offering a broad range of researchers and practitioners alike practical access to uncertainty estimation techniques. The library is available at